Deficiency Diseases in poultry
Different elements and compounds are required for the normal growth and development of poultry. If one or more of them are not present in the diet in adequate quantity, the normal functioning of the body will be impaired.
- Vitamin A deficiency
Rate of growth falls below normal
droopiness, a staggering gait
ruffled appearance of the feathers.
the eyes become inflamed and there is a discharge from the nostrils.
In some there are swellings around the eyes and sticky exudate beneath the lids.
These symptoms may appear as early as the end of the third week.
Some of the chicks die before the 4th week .
In mature chickens the symptoms develop much more slowly than in growing chicks, but the inflammation of the eyes becomes more pronounced.
Often there is a white membranous film over the nictating membrane, or third eyelid, and a cheesy discharge, in the conjunctival sacs. There may also be a sticky discharge from the nostrils.
- Vitamin D
Poultry requires vitamin D to effectively utilize calcium.
Vitamin D helps in the synthesis of calcium-binding proteins.
Calcium-binding proteins enhance Calcium absorption in the intestines especially.
Deficiency of vitamin D is evident in laying birds as egg production and egg weight decrease.
In growing birds, the symptoms are similar with that of calcium deficiency. There is bone weakness and retarded growth.
Vitamin D in feed may not be totally available to the birds due to destruction by oxidation and mycotoxin interference.
- Vitamin E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It protects the body from free radicals that may cause harm. Just as selenium, its deficiency will lead to myopathies of the gizzard, the heart and skeletal muscles .
Other signs may include prostration with legs and head outstretched.
Males become infertile.
There is reduced egg production and hatchability of eggs .
- Vitamin K
Vitamin is necessary for blood clotting.
Deficiency of vitamin k will lead to bleeding (hemorrhage) which may be internal and will lead to anemia.
An extended blood clotting time will lead to death of the bird.